Boiler Tubing

Sunny Steel has provided seamless carbon/alloy and welded carbon tubing products for pressure tube applications in petrochemical, commercial fire and water boiler service, and requirements in a variety of other industries. Boilers play an important role in various types of plants for the power and chemical industry. With the progress of these industries, modern boilers have become larger in size and the temperature, as well as the pressure, has increased. Therefore, the boiler tubing used within them must be of a higher quality.

Boiler tubes

Boiler tubing is used in these industries:
  • Steam Boilers
  • Power Generation
  • Fossil Fuel Plants
  • Electric Power Plants
  • Industrial Processing Plants
  • Cogeneration Facilities
  • Waste Heat

Facilities & Services

Let us save you money on your next retrofit. In addition to standard stock sales, Sunny Steel is your source for the “material side” of planned outages!

Beveling & Cutting

Beveling & Cutting

Need boiler tubes prepped for field welding or cut to length? SunnySteel can provide OD beveling and cut your boiler tubes to any length needed.

Steel pipe hydrostatic testing

High-pressure boiler tubes are frequently occurs fault because of high temperatures, affecting the entire heating system, mainly due to an internal boiler.

Special Packaging

Need special packaging and paiting for your Boiler Tubes? SunnySteel can supply wood blocking, crating, capping and wrapped ends.

Requesting a complimentary quote

Select one or more products to view more information or request a quote:

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Boiler Tubing Grade Substitutions
Original Grade Upgrade
SA-83 SA-
SA- SA-192
SA-192 SA-210-A1
,T1A,T1B SA--T11
SA-210-A1 SA-213-T11
SA-213-T11
SA-213-T11 SA-213-T22
SA-213-T12 SA-213-T11
SA-213-T2 SA-213-T11
SA-213-T22 NONE
SA-213-T23 NONE
SA-213-TP304H SA-213-TP347H
SA-213-TP321H SA-213-TP347H
SA-213-TP347H NONE
SA-226 SA-178-A

Note: These substitutions have been seen within the industry and are not to be considered engineered standards. Please check with your engineer for approval.


Industry Abbreviations

Boiler and boiler tube industry abbreviations and their definitions.

AA: Aluminum Association
AAR: Association of American Railroads
ABS: American Bureau of Shipbuilding
ACD: Annealed and Cold Drawn
ACDQ: Accelerated Cooling Direct Quench
ACI: Alloy Casting Institute
ADI: Austempered Ductile Iron
AFNOR: Association Francaise de Normalisation
AGA: American Gas Association
AISI: American Iron and Steel Institute
AMS: Aerospace Materials Specifications
AOD: Argon Oxygen Decarburization
API: American Petroleum Institute
AQ: Aircraft Quality
AREA: American Railway Engineering Association
ASCE: American Society of Civil Engineers
ASIE: American Society of Industrial Engineers
ASM: American Society for Metals (now ASM International)
ASME: American Society of Mechanical Engineers
ASQ: Aircraft Structural Quality
ASQ: Axle Shaft Quality
ASTM: American Society for Testing and Materials
AWWA: American Water Works Association
BH: Bake Hardenable (Steel)
BSI: British Standards Institute
BSSA: British Stainless Steel Association
CD: Cold Drawn
CDA: Copper Development Association
CERF: Civil Engineering Research Foundation
CF: Cold Formed or Cold Finished
CHQ: Cold Heading Quality
COF: Coefficient of Friction
CQ: Commercial Quality
CR: Cold Rolled
CRES: Corrosion REsistant Steel
CS: Commercial Steel
CSA: Canadian Standards Associates
CTE: Coefficient of Thermal Expansion
CVD: Chemical Vapor Deposition
CW: Cold Worked
D Steel: Dual Phase Steel
DA: Duplex Annealed
DDQ: Deep Drawing Quality
DDS: Deep Drawing Steel
DIN: Deutches Institut für Normung
DIPRA: Ductile Iron Pipe Research Association
DIS: Ductile Iron Society
DMLS: Direct Metal Laser Sintering (Rapid Protoyping/3D Printing Technique)
DOE: Department of Energy (US Government)
DQ: Drawing Quality
DQSK: Drawing Quality Special Killed
DR: Dent Resistant (Steel)
DS: Drawing Steel
EDDQ: Extra Deep Drawing Quality
EDDS: Extra Deep Drawing Steel
ELI: Extra Low Interstitial
EMI: Electromagnetic Interference
EPA: Environmental Protection Agency (US Government)
ERW: Electrical Resistance Welding
ESCR: Environmental Stress Cracking Resistance
ESR: Electroslag Remelting
FDA: Food and Drug Administration (US Government)
FED: Federal Specification Number
FM: Factory Mutual
Frg: Forging
GMAW: Gas Metal Arc Welding
GP: General Purpose
GTAW: Gas Tungsten Arc Welding
HAZ: Heat Affected Zone (welding/joining)
HB: Brinell Hardness Number
HE: Hot Extruded
HF: Hot Finished
HIP: Hot Isostatic Pressing
HR: Hot Rolled
HRA: Rockwell A Hardness Number
HRB: Rockwell B Hardness Number
HRC: Rockwell C Hardness Number
HRPO: “Hot Rolled: Pickled and Oiled”
HSLA: High Strength Low Alloy (Steel)
HSS: Hollow Structural Steel
HT: Heat Treated
HV: Vickers Hardness
HW: Hot Worked or Hot Wrought
ISO: International Standards Organization
JIS: Japan Industrial Standard
ksi: 1000 pounds per square inch (kilo-psi)
MASH: Mean Apparent Specific Heat
MIL SPEC: Military Specification Number
MIM: Metal Injection Molding
MMA: Manual Metal Arc Welding
MMC: Metal Matrix Composite
MSE: Materials Science and Engineering
NACE: National Association of Corrosion Engineers
NASA: National Aeronautics and Space Administration (US)
NB: No Break (Applied to Impact Test Results)
NCD: Normalized and Cold Drawn
NHT: Not Heat Treated
NIST: National Institute of Standards and Technology
NSF: National Sanitation Foundation (nonregulatory agency)
OEM: Original Equipment Manufacturer
OSHA: Occupation Safety and Health Administration (US Government)
PH: Precipitation Hardened
PHT: Precipitation Heat Treated
PM (P/M): Powder Metallurgy
POP: Point of Purchase (Marketing Displays)
PVQ: Pressure Vessel Quality
QA: Quenched and Aged
QT: Quenched and Tempered
RQ: Regular Quality
RT: Room Temperature
S Steel: Structural Quality Grade Steel
SA: Solution Annealed
SACD: Spheroidized Annealed and Cold Drawn
SAE: Society of Automotive Engineers
SCHQ: Special Cold Heading Quality
SHT: Solution Heat Treated
SLM: Selective Laser Melting (Rapid Protoyping/3D Printing Technique)
SLS: Selective Laser Sintering (Rapid Protoyping/3D Printing Technique)
SMA: Shape Memory Alloy
SMAW: Shielded Metal Arc Welding
Smls: Seamless
SQ: Saw Quality
SQ: Solution Quenched
SQ: Structural Quality
SQA: Solution Quenched and Annealed
SR: Stress Relieved
SS: Stainless Steel
SS: Structural Steel
STA: Solution Treated and Aged
STOA: Solution Treated and Overaged
TA: Triplex Annealed
TC: Tungsten Carbide
TCT: Tungsten Carbide Tipped
TYS: Tensile Yield Strength
UNI: Ente Nationale Italiano di Unificazione (Italian standards body)
UNS: Unified Numbering System
UTS: Ultimate Tensile Strength
VAR: Vacuum Arc Remelting
VCD: Vacuum Carbon Deoxidation
VIM: Vacuum Induction Melting
W Steel: Weathering Grade Steel
WC: Tungsten Carbide
X Steel: Low Alloy Grade Steel

Welded Products (Carbon)

TUBING SPECIFICATIONS FOR WELDED PRODUCTS (Carbon)

  • SA-178 Electric-resistance welded carbon steel boiler tubes
  • SA-214 Electric-resistance welded carbon steel heat exchanger and condenser tubes
  • SA-226 Electric-resistance welded carbon steel boiler and super heater tubes for high pressure service
  • SA-513 Electric-resistance welded carbon steel mechanical tubing
  • SA-250 Electric-resistance welded carbon-molybdenum alloy-steel boiler and superheater tubes
  • SA-53 Pipe, steel, black and hot-dipped, zinc coated welded and seamless
  • SA-135 Electric-resistance welded steel pipe
  • SA-423 Seamless and electric welded low alloy steel tubes
  • SA-587 Electric-welded low-carbon steel pipe for the chemical industry
  • SA-557 Electric-resistance-welded carbon steel feedwater heater tube
  • SA-498 Seamless and welded carbon, ferritic, & austentic alloy steel heat-exchanger tubes with integral fins

Welded Products (Stainless)

TUBING SPECIFICATIONS FOR WELDED PRODUCTS (STAINLESS)

  • SA-249 Welded austenitic steel boiler, superheater, heat-exchanger and condenser tubes
  • SA-269 Welded austenitic stainless steel tubing for general service
  • SA-312 Welded austenitic stainless steel pipe
  • SA-268 Seamless and welded ferritic stainless steel tubing for general service
  • SA-270 Seamless and welded austenitic stainless steel sanitar tubing

Seamless Products (Carbon, Alloy & Stainless)

TUBING SPECIFICATIONS FOR SEAMLESS PRODUCTS (Carbon & Alloy)

  • SA-106 Seamless carbon steel pipe for high temp. service
  • SA-179 Seamless cold-drawn low carbon steel heat exchanger and condenser tubes
  • SA-192 Seamless carbon steel boiler tubes for high pressure service
  • SA-209 Seamless carbon-molybdenum alloy-steel boiler and superheater tubes
  • SA-210 Seamless medium-carbon steel boiler and superheater tubes
  • SA-213 Seamless ferritic and austenitic alloy-steel boiler, superheater, and heat exchanger tubes
  • SA-333 Seamless and welded steel pipe and low temp. service
  • SA-334 Seamless and welded carbon and alloy-steel tubes for low temp. service
  • SA-335 Seamless ferritic alloy-steel pipe for high temp. service
  • SA-519 Seamless carbon and alloy steel mechanical tubing
  • SA-556 Seamless cold drawn carbon steel feedwater heater tubes
  • SA-53 Pipe, steel, black and hot-dipped, zinc coated welded and seamless
  • SA-423 Seamless and electric welded low alloy steel tubes
  • SA-512 Cold-drawn buttweld carbon steel mechanical tubing
  • SA-199 Seamless cold-drawn intermediate alloy-steel heat exchanger and condenser tubes

Glossary of Terms

Boiler and boiler tube industry terms and their definitions.

A


Age Hardening See Heat Treatment.
Air Frame Tubing This tubing is produced for aircraft structural parts. This tubing is made to special surface quality, mechanical properties and other characteristics required by Military Specifications (MIL-T – . . . ) and SAE Aeronautical Materials Specifications. (AMS.).
Air Hardening See Heat Treatment.
Aircraft Quality Is a steel which has a special cleanliness rating determined by magnetic particle testing. The terms Aircraft Quality and Magnafux Quality are considered synonymous.
Alloy Steel All steels contain carbon and small amounts of silicon, sulfur, manganese, and phosphorus. Steels which contain intentional additions of elements other than these, or in which silicon and manganese are present in large amounts for the express purpose of improving or altering any of the physical or mechanical properties of the steel, are termed alloy steels.
Annealing See Heat Treatment.
Austenitic Stainless Steel Low carbon, iron-chromium-nickel stainless alloys containing more than 16% chromium, with sufficient nickel to provide an austenitic structure at normal temperatures. These alloys cannot be hardened by heat treatment, but can be hardened by cold working. They are normally non-magnetic, but can be slightly magnetic depending upon composition and amount of cold working.
Average Wall See dimensions.

 


B


Bearing Quality Steels Steels suitable for use in balls, rollers, and races of high quality anti-friction bearings.
Bevel An angular cut on the I.D. or O.D. of a tube end.
Billet As used in the manufacture of seamless tubes, a round bar with dimensions and other characteristics suitable for piercing into tubing.
Bloom A semi-finished piece of steel, resulting from the rolling or forging of an ingot. A bloom is square or not more than twice as wide as thick, and usually not less than 36-sq. in. in cross-sectional area.
Borescope An optical device used for inspecting under low magnification the inside surface of tubes.
Bright Anneal See heat treatment
Brinell Hardness See hardness

 


C


Camber The amount of curvature or deviation form exact straightness over any specified length of tubing.
Capped Steel Semi-killed steel which has characteristics similar to those of rimmed steels but to a degree intermediate between rimmed and killed steel. The capping operation limits the time of gas evolution and prevents the formation of an excessive number of gas voids within the ingot.
Carbide A compound consisting of carbon and other elements.
Carbide Precipitation The phenomenon of carbides coming out of a solid solution, occurring in stainless steel when heated into the range of 800-1600 degrees Fahrenheit.
Carbon Steel A steel consisting of essentially iron, carbon, manganese, and silicon. Carbon steel has no minimum content required for aluminum, chromium, cobalt, columbium, molybdenum, nickel, titanium, tungsten, vanadium, zicronium or any other element added to obtain alloying effect. Small quantities of certain residual elements are considered incidental.
Carburizing Adding carbon to the surface of iron-based alloys by heating the metal below its melting point in contact with carbonaceous solids, liquids, or gases. Desired hardness and toughness properties are developed in the high carbon case by quenching and tempering.
Case Hardening A heat treatment in which the surface (case) of an iron-base alloy is made harder than the interior (core). Any of the following methods may be employed: flame hardening, induction hardening, carburizing, cyaniding, or nitriding.
Charpy Impact Test See Impact Testing.
Check Analysis An analysis of the metal after it has been rolled or forged into semi-finished or finished forms. It is not a check on the ladle analysis, but is a check against the chemistry ordered.
Chloride Stress Cracking See Stress Corrosion Cracking
Cleanup The amount of metal removal required to obtain desired dimensions and complete removal of inherent surface imperfections.
Coefficient of Thermal Expansion A physical property value representing the change in length per unit length, the change in area per unit area or the change in volume per unit volume per one degree increase in temperature.
Cold Drawing A process in which tubing is drawn at room temperature through a die and over a mandrel to achieve its final size and to provide better surface finish, closer tolerances, lighter walls, smaller diameters, longer lengths, or a different combination of mechanical properties from those possible through hot finishing or direct welding.
Cold Reduction The reduction of sectional dimensions of a tube by any of a number of types of cold-working operations.
Cold Sinking Similar to cold drawing, except that the tube is drawn through a die, but without an internal mandrel. Usually used only for making heavy wall or small tubing, where drawing over a mandrel is impractical. Only outside diameter is closely controlled.
Cold Working Permanent plastic deformation of a metal below its recrystallization temperature.
Conditioning The removal of surface defects (seams, laps, pits, etc.) from steel. Conditioning is usually done when the steel is in semi-finished condition (bloom, billet, slab). It may be accomplished, after an inspection, by chipping, scarfing, grinding, or machining.
Copper-Copper Sulfate Test An intergranular corrosion test for stainless steels. The specimen is placed in boiling copper-copper-sulfate-sulfuric acid for 24 hours after which it is bent to expose any surface intergranular attack. This test is often preferred over the Huey test because it requires much less time.
Corrosion Chemical or electrochemical deterioration of a metal or alloy.
Corrosion Pitting Corrosion – Non-uniform corrosion usually forming small cavities in the metal surface.
Corrosion Intergranular Intergranular Corrosion – Corrosion which occurs preferentially along the grain boundaries of the alloy.
Corrosion Resistance The ability to resist attack by corrosion.
Corrosion-Galvanic Corrosion associated with the presence of two dissimilar metals in a solution (electrolyte). In principle, it is similar to bath-type plating in the sense that the anode surface has lost metal (corroded).
Creep Strength The constant nominal stress that will cause a specified quantity of creep in a given time at a constant temperature. It is a measure of a tubes ability to withstand prolonged stress or load without significant continuous deformation. In steels it is an important factor only at elevated temperatures.
Crown Crown, in plates, sheet, or strips, is characterized by a greater thickness in the middle than at the edges. It may be caused by a deflecting (bending) of the rolls or by worn rolls.
Cut Length Refers to tubing ordered to a specified length and permitting a tolerance of a standardized fraction of an inch over but nothing under the specified length.
Cyaniding A process in which an iron-base alloy is heated in contact with a cyanide salt so that the surface absorbs carbon and nitrogen. Cyaniding is followed by quenching and tempering to produce a case with a desired combination of hardness and toughness.

 


D


Decarburization The loss of carbon forms the surface of an iron-base alloy as the result of heating in an environment which removes the carbon. In medium or high carbon steels, decarburization leads to a pronounced lowering of the fatigue limit.
Density The mass per unit volume of a substance, usually expressed in the tubing industry in pounds per cubic inch.
Dimensions O.D . – Outside Diameter. Specified in inches and fractions of an inch, or inches and decimals of an inch.
Dimensions I.D. – Inside Diameter. Specified in the same units as O.D.
Ductility The ability of a tube to deform plastically. Frequently, elongation during tensile testing is used as a measurement of this property.
Dye Penetrant Inspection Non-destructive test employing dye or fluorescent chemical and sometimes black light to detect surface defects.

 


E


Eccentricity The displacement of the I.D. of the tube with respect to its O.D. Eccentricity results in the variation of wall thickness normal to seamless tubing.
Eddy Current Non-destructive testing method using eddy current flow for the purpose of recognizing a discontinuity in the piece being tested.
Elastic Limit A measure of the maximum stress that may be applied to a tube without leaving a permanent deformation or strain after the stress is released.
Electric Furnace Process One of the common methods used for melting and refining stainless and some alloy steels. It involves the use of electric power as the sole source of heat, thereby preventing contamination of the steel by impurities in the fuel as in other melting processes.
Electric Resistance Welded Tubing (ERW) Tubing made from strip, sheet, or bands by electric resistance heating and pressure, the strip being part of the electrical circuit. The electric current, which may be introduced into the strip through electrodes or by induction, generates the welding heat through the electrical resistance of the strip.
ERW Tubing – As Drawn As Drawn tubing is unheat-treated, cold drawn tubing and has a scale free cold drawn surface.
ERW Tubing – As Welded Cold Rolled As Welded Cold Rolled – ERW tubing exhibiting the surface of cold rolled strip.
ERW Tubing – As Welded Hot Rolled As Welded Hot Rolled – ERW tubing exhibiting the pickled or shot blasted surface of hot rolled strip.
ERW Tubing – Bright Annealed Bright Annealed – Welded tubing normalized in a controlled atmosphere furnace and which exhibits a bright surface.
ERW Tubing – Flash In Flash-In tubing us welded tubing which still retains the I.D. bead or flash formed during the welding operation. It can be furnished in either the as-welded, sunk, or heat-treated condition.
ERW Tubing – Flash Removed Flash-Removed – Welded tubing from which the I.D. flash formed during the welding operation has been removed by some mechanical method. It can be furnished in either the as-welded, sunk, or heat-treated condition.
ERW Tubing – Gun Metal Gun Metal Finish – Welded tubing normalized, annealed, or stress relieved in a controlled atmosphere furnace which exhibits a gun metal finish.
ERW Tubing – Pickled Pickled tubing has had the scale from hot fabrication or heat treatment removed by one of several types of acid solutions.
ERW Tubing – Special Smooth I.D. Special Smooth I.D. – A cold drawn tube in which special attention is paid to the internal surface. Depth of pits and scores in I.D. are guaranteed to be below published maximum depths. Microinch finish is guaranteed in ERW tubes.
Elongation The amount of permanent stretch, usually referring to a measurement of a specimen after fracture in a tensile test. It is expressed as a percentage of the original gage length.
Endurance Limit The maximum stress below which a material can presumably endure an infinite number of stress cycles.
Etch Test Exposure of a specimen to acid attack for the purpose of disclosing the presence to foreign matter, defects, segregation pattern, or flow lines.
Extrusion Production process in which steel is forced by compression through a die into solids (round or special shape) or through a die and over a mandrel to form a tubular shape.

 


F


Fatigue Limit Synonymous with Endurance Limit
Ferritic Stainless Steels The designation used for certain straight chromium steels which exhibit microstructures consisting mainly of ferrite at ordinary temperatures. Ferritic stainless steels are divided into two classifications: hardenable, and non-hardenable. When rapidly cooled from elevated temperatures the non-hardenable grades (ferritic) have a ferritic microstructure. The hardenable grades (martensitic) will exhibit a martensitic microstructure when rapidly cooled.
Finish In the steel industry, refers to the type of surface condition desired or existing in the finished product.
Finish Anneal See Heat Treatment.
Finish Machine Size Normally specified in terms of the maximum machined O.D. and the minimum machined I.D. as applied to tubular parts. Finish machine size represents the size or the part as it comes form the final machining operation. From this size the tube mill can calculate a tube size which will be guaranteed to cleanup upon machining.
Flame Hardening A process of heating the surface layer of an iron-base alloy above the transformation temperature range by means of the flame of a high temperature torch, followed by quenching.
Flanged End In a flanged end the tube has been belled or expanded and a flange turned over until the wall of the tube end is at right angles to the wall of the tube.
Flash Removed- See Electric Resistance Welded Tubing.
Flash-In Tubing See Electric Resistance Welded Tubing.
Flux Leakage Test Non-destructive test which uses magnetic lines of force to recognize any discontinuity in the test piece.
Forging Used as a general term to describe the rolling, pressing, or hammering of steel which displaces the metal under compression by a locally applied force, usually at hot working temperatures.
Fracture Strength As usually related to the tensile test, fracture strength or true breaking strength is defined as the load on the specimen at the time of fracture.
Full Anneal See Heat Treatment.

 


G


Gauges A measurement of thickness. There are various standard gages such as United States Standard Gage (USS), Galvanized Sheet Gage (GSG), Birmingham Wire Gage (BWG).
Grain Size A measure of the size of individual metallic crystals usually expressed as an average. Grain size is reported as a number in accordance with procedures described in ASTM Grain size specifications.
Grain Size – Apparent Ferrite Apparent Ferrite Grain Size is average of the size of the ferrite grains as microscopically viewed in the normalized or annealed condition.
Grain Size – Austenitic Austenitic Grain Size, which is usually measurement by the McQuaid-Ehn method, represents the austenitic grain size of a material at a prescribed temperature above the upper critical, frequeintly 1700F. For austenitic stainless steels the grain size does not change upon cooling and is that observed microscopically at room temperature.

 


H


Hardenability The property in steel that determines the depth and distribution of hardness induced by cooling from a suitable elevated temperature. The hardness can vary with the cooling rate.
Hardness A measure of the degree of a materials resistance to indentation. It is usually determined by measuring resistance to penetration, by such tests as Brinell, Rockwell, and Vickers.
Heat Treatment A combination of heating and cooling operations applied to a metal or alloy in the solid state to obtain desired conditions or properties. Heating for the sole purpose of hot working is excluded from the meaning of this definition. See various types below.
Heat Treatment – Age Hardening Age Hardening – Hardening by aging, usually after rapid cooling or cold working. Hardening is a result of a precipitation process, often submicroscopic, which occurs when a supersaturated solid solution is naturally aged at atmospheric temperature or artificially aged in some specific range of elevated temperature. Aging occurs more rapidly at higher temperatures. (Synonymous with precipitation hardening)
Heat Treatment – Air Hardening Air Hardening – Heating a suitable grade of steel with high hardenability above the critical temperature range and then cooling in air for the purpose of hardening.
Heat Treatment – Air Hardening Air Hardening – Heating a suitable grade of steel with high hardenability above the critical temperature range and then cooling in air for the purpose of hardening.
Heat Treatment – Air Hardening Air Hardening – Heating a suitable grade of steel with high hardenability above the critical temperature range and then cooling in air for the purpose of hardening.
Heat Treatment – Annealing Annealing – Annealing is a heat treatment process which usually involves a relatively slow cooling after holding the material for some time at the annealing temperature. The purpose of the annealing treatment may include the following: (a) to induce softness: (b) to remove internal stresses: (c) to refine the grain size: (d) to modify physical and/or mechanical properties: (e) to produce a definite microstructure: (f) to improve machinability. It is generally desirable to use more specific terms in describing the heat treatment to be used, e.g., finish anneal, full anneal, or medium anneal, as applicable.
Heat Treatment – Bright Anneal Bright Anneal – Carried out in a controlled furnace atmosphere, so that surface oxidation is reduced to a minimum and the tube surface remains relatively bright.
Heat Treatment – Dead Soft A heat treatment applied to achieve maximum softness and ductility
Heat Treatment – Drawing Drawing – Synonymous with TEMPERING, which is preferable.
Heat Treatment – Finish Anneal Finish Anneal – Heating of cold-worked tubing to a temperature below the lower critical, usually 950F. Generally this treatment will relieve peak stresses without altering hardness to any extent.
Heat Treatment – Full Anneal Full Anneal – Heating to a temperature above the upper critical and slow cooling below the lower critical.
Heat Treatment – Isothermal Isothermal Anneal – Austenitizing a heat treatable alloy and cooling to and holding within the range of temperature at which austenite transforms to a relatively soft ferrite-carbide aggregate.
Heat Treatment – Medium Anneal Medium Anneal – Subjecting tubing to a subcritical temperature to obtain specific mechanical properties.
Heat Treatment – Normalize Normalize – Normalizing is a process which consists of heating to a temperature approximately 100F above the upper critical temperature and cooling in still air.
Heat Treatment – Quenching Quenching – A process of rapid cooling from an elevated temperature, by contact with liquids or gases.
Heat Treatment – Soft Anneal Soft Anneal – A high temperature stress relieving anneal usually preformed in the temperature range of 1250 to 1350F. This anneal reduces hardness and strength of a cold worked steel to achieve near maximum softness.
Heat Treatment – Solution Anneal Solution Anneal – Heating steel into a temperature range wherein certain elements or compounds dissolve, followed by cooling at a rate sufficient to maintain these elements in solution at room temperature. The expression is normally applied to stainless and other special steels.
Heat Treatment – Spheroidizing Anneal Spheroidizing Anneal – A general term which refers to heat treatments that promote spheroidal or globular forms of carbide in carbon or alloy steels.
Heat Treatment – Stabilizing Anneal Stabilizing Anneal – A treatment applied to austenitic stainless steels wherein carbides of various forms are deliberately precipitated. Sufficient additional time is provided at the elevated temperature to diffuse chromium into the areas adjacent to the carbides (usually grain boundaries). This treatment is intended to lessen the chance of intergranular corrosion.
Heat Treatment – Stress Relieving Stress Relieving – A heat treatment which reduces internal residual stresses that have been induced in metals by casting, quenching, welding, cold working, etc. The metal is soaked at a suitable temperature for a sufficient time to allow readjustment of stresses. The temperature of stress relieving is always below the transformation range. Finish anneal, medium anneal, and soft anneal (sub-critical) describe specific types of stress relief anneals.
Heat Treatment – Tempering Tempering – Reheating quenched or normalized steel to a temperature below the transformation range (lower critical) followed by any desired rate of cooling.
Hot Finished Seamless Tubing Tubing produced by rotary piercing, extrusion, and other hot working processes without subsequent cold finishing operations.
Hot Rolled ERW Tubing As welded electric resistance welded tubing made from hot rolled strip, sheet, or bands.
Hot Shortness (Red Shortness) A condition encountered in some metals wherein ductility is lessened at hot working temperatures.
Hot Working The mechanical working of metal above the recrystallization temperature.
Huey Test A corrosion test for stainless steels. The weight loss per unit area is measured after each of five 48-hour boils in 65% nitric acid. The test results are calculated to and reported as the average corrosion rate of the five boils in inches per month (imp) corrosion rates. The test is used to determine the suitability of a material for nitric acid service. Since most of the weight loss is due to intergranular attack, the Huey test can be used as an indication of the resistance of a stainless steel to intergranular corrosion.
Hydrostatic Test A test in which a liquid, usually water, under pressure, is used internally to detect and locate leaks in a tube of a fabricated structure.

 


I


Impact Testing There are several methods of determining the toughness of a steel, but the Izod and Charpy notched-bar tests are used quite widely. In both tests, the samples are cooled or heated to the desired test temperature, then struck once with a pendulum which fractures the specimen. The energy required to fracture the specimen, the impact strength, is measured in foot-pounds.
Inclusions Particles of nonmetallic impurities, usually oxides, sulfides, silicates, which are mechanically held in metals and alloys during solidification.
Induction Heating A process of heating by electrical induction.
Ingot A cast metal shape suitable for subsequent rolling or forging.
Ingot Mold A mold in which ingots are cast. Molds may be circular, square, or rectangular in shape, with walls of various thicknesses. Some molds are of larger cross section at the bottom: others are larger at the top.
Integral Finned Tubing Tubing with raised surface fins formed from the wall of the tube itself.
Intergranular Corrosion A type of electrochemical corrosion that progresses preferentially along the grain boundaries of an alloy, usually because the grain boundary regions contain material anodic to the central regions of the grain.
Internal Soundness Refers to condition of inside of material lack of defects, pipe, segregation, non-uniformity of composition.
Isothermal Anneal See Heat Treatment.
Izod Impact Test See Impact Strength Testing.

 


J


Jominy Test Hardenability test performed usually on alloy steels to determine depth and degree of hardness resulting form a standard end quenching method with cold water.

 


K


Killed Steel Steel deoxidized with an agent such as silicon or aluminum to reduce the free oxygen content so that no harmful reaction occurs between carbon and oxygen during solidification.

 


L


Ladle A large vessel into which molten steel or molten slag is received and handled.
Ladle Analysis Chemical analysis obtained form a sample taken during the pouring of the steel.
Laminations Defects resulting form the presence of blisters, seams, or foreign inclusions aligned parallel to the worked surface of a metal.
Lap A surface defect caused from folding the surface of an ingot, bloom, or bar during hot rolling operations and then rolling or forging the fold into the surface.

 


M


Machinability A measure of the relative ease with which steel may be machined.
Machining The deliberate removal of metal by one or more of several processes.
Macroetch A testing procedure for locating and identifying porosity, pipes, bursts, unsoundness, inclusions, segregations, carburization, flow lines from hot working, etc. Surface of the test piece should be reasonably smooth or even polished. After applying a suitable etching solution, the structure developed by the action of the reagent may be observed without a microscope.
Magnaflux Test This test is conducted by suitably magnetizing the material and applying a prepared wet or dry magnetic power or fluid which adheres to it along lines of flux leakage. It shows the existence of surface and slightly subsurface non-uniformities.
Malleability The property that determines the ease of deforming a metal when the material is subjected to rolling or hammering. The more malleable metals can be hammered or rolled into thin sheet more easily than others.
Mandrel (1) A device used to retain the cavity in hollow metal products during workout. (2) A metal bar around which other metal may be cast, bent, formed, or shaped.
Maraging A process of improving the mechanical strength of certain ferrous alloys. The name was derived from two hardening reactions: martensite and aging. The maraging strengthening mechanism is based on the age hardening (precipitation hardening) of extra-low carbon martensite.
Martensite A constituent in quenched steel formed without diffusion and only during rapid cooling below the martensitic start (Ms) temperature. Martensite is the hardest of the transformation products of austenite.
McQuaid-Ehn Test A special test for revealing the austenitic grain size of ferretic steels when the steel is heated to 1700F and carburized. There are eight standard McQuaid-Ehn grain sizes – sizes 5 to 8 are considered fine grain and sizes under 5 are considered coarse grain.
Mechanical Properties Those properties of a material that reveal the elastic and in-elastic reaction when force is applied, or that involve the relationship between stress and strain for example, the modulus of elasticity hardness, tensile strength and fatigue limit. These properties have often been referred to as physical properties, but the term mechanical properties is correct.
Mechanical Tubing Used for a variety of mechanical and structural purposes, as opposed to pressure tubing, which is used to contain or conduct fluids or gases under pressure. It may be hot finished or cold drawn. It is commonly manufactured to consumer specifications covering chemical analysis and mechanical properties.
Metallography The science dealing with the constitution, and structure of metals and alloys as revealed by the unaided eye or by such tools as low powered magnification, optical microscope, electron microscope and diffraction or X-ray techniques.
Metric System of Measurements In the metric system of measurements, the principal unit for length is the meter: the principal unit for volume, the liter: and the principal unit for weight, the gram. The following prefixes are used for sub-divisions and multiples: milli = 1/1000: centi = 1/100: deci = 1/10: deca 10: hecto = 100: kilo = 1000. In abbreviations, the sub-divisions are frequently used with a smaller letter and the multiples with a capital letter, although this practice is not universally followed everywhere the metric system is used. All the multiples and the sub-divisions are not used commercially. Those ordinarily used for length are kilometer, meter, centimeter, and millimeter: for area square meter, square centimeter, and square millimeter: for volume, cubic meters, cubic decimeter (liter), cubic centimeter, and cubic millimeter. The most commonly used weights are the kilogram and gram. The metric system was legalized in the United States by an Act of Congress in 1866.
Micro-Etch Micro-etching is used for the examination of a sample under a microscope. Etching solutions tend to reveal structural details because of preferential chemical attack on the polished surface.
Microcleanliness Refers to the extent or quality of nonmetallic inclusions observed by examination under a microscope.
Minimum Wall Any wall having tolerances specified all on the plus side.
Modulus of Elasticity The ratio of stress applied to a material and the resulting strain occurring at the stresses below the elastic limit.

 


N


Nitriding A process of case hardening in which a ferrous alloy, usually of special composition, is heated in an atmosphere of cracked ammonia or in contact with nitrogenous material to produce surface hardening without quenching by the absorption of nitrogen. Nitriding is normally conducted in a range from 900 to 1000F.
Non-Destructive Testing Methods of detecting defects without destroying or permanently changing the material being tested. Test methods include ultrasonic, eddy current, flux leakage, magnetic particle, liquid, penetrant, and X-ray.
Notch Brittleness Susceptibility of a material to brittle fracture at points of stress concentration.
Notch Sensitivity A measure of the reduction in strength of a metal caused by the presence of stress concentration.

 


O


Ovality The difference between the maximum and minimum outside diameters of any one cross section of a tube. It is a measure of deviation from roundness.
Oxalic Acid Etch Test A quick metallographic test which is sometimes used to screen stainless steels before intergranular corrosion testing. This test is specified with a referee test such as the Copper-Copper Sulfate or Huey test.
Oxidation In its simplest terms, oxidation means the combination of any substance with oxygen. Scale developed during heat treatment is a form of oxidation.
Oxide A compound consisting of oxygen and one or more metallic elements.

 


P


Passivate The changing of the chemically active surface of a metal to a much less active state by the application of the proper chemical treatment or by applying an induced electrical current and voltage for cathodic or anodic protection form corrosion. An example of chemically passivating stainless steel would be to immerse stainless in a hot solution of approximately 10 to 20 percent by volume nitric acid and water.
Photomicrograph A photographic reproduction of an object magnified more than ten times used to show microstructure characteristics of steel.
Physical Properties Those properties not specifically related to reaction to external forces. These include such properties as density, electrical resistance, co-efficient of thermal conductivity.
Pickling Use of solutions, usually acids, to remove surface oxides form a tube, may also be used to produce a desired surface finish.
Piercing A seamless tubemaking method in which a hot billet is gripped and rotated by rolls or cones and directed over a piercer point is held on the end of a mandrel bar.
Pit A sharp, usually small, depression in the surface of metal.
Porosity Unsoundness caused in cast metals by the presence of blowholes or shrinkage cavities.
Pressure Tubing Tubing produced for the purpose of containing or conducting fluids or gases under pressure.
Profilometer An instrument used for measuring surface finish. The vertical movements of a stylus as it traverses the surfaces are amplified electromagnetically and recorded (or indicated) as the surface roughness.
Proof Stress The load per square inch of the original cross-sectional area which, when removed, has caused a permanent elongation not exceeding a defined amount (usually 0.0001 per inch of gage length). A test of this type is more commonly used in Europe than in this country, where it largely has been replaced by yield strength measurements.
Pyrometer An instrument of any of various types used for measuring temperatures.

 


Q


Quenching See Heat Treatment.

 


R


Random Length Tubing produced to a permissible variation in length. (Frequently seven feet.)
Recrystallization The reversion of distorted cold worked microstructure to a new, strain-free structure during annealing.
Reduction of Area A measure of ductility determined in a tensile test. It is the maximum reduction, at the fracture, of the cross section area of a specimen, as compared with its original cross section area.
Rimmed Steel A steel which forms a relatively clean outer layer (rim) during solidification. Sheet and strip made from such steel has good surface quality and is frequently used for ERW tubing.
Rockwell Hardness See Hardness.
Roto-Rock (Tube Reducing or Rockrite) A method of cold finishing tubing in which a machine rolls or rocks a split die over a tube. The tube is supported on the inside by a tapered mandrel.

 


S


Scale An oxide of iron which forms on the surface of hot steel.
Seam A tight, but unwelded imperfection on the surface of a wrought metal product.
Segregation Nonuniform distribution of alloying elements, impurities, or microphases.
Semi-Killed Steel Steel that is incompletely deoxidized to permit the evolution of carbon monoxide, thereby offsetting solidification shrinkage.
Sensitization Sensitization of stainless steel is defined as a susceptibility of preferential grain boundary attack. Material which exhibits grain boundary carbide precipitation may or may not be sensitized.
Soak To hold an ingot, slab, bloom, billet, or other piece of steel in a hot furnace, pit, or chamber to secure uniform temperature.
Soaking Pit A furnace or pit for the heating of ingots of steel to make their temperature uniform prior to rolling or forging.
Soft Anneal See Heat Treatment.
Specification A document defining the measurements, tests, and other requirements to which a product must conform typically covering chemistry, mechanical properties, tolerances, finish, reports, marking, and packaging.

Spheroidize Anneal See Heat Treatment.
Spinning A type of forming (hot or cold) which involves rotating a tube at high speed against fixed or rolling tools for the purpose of altering shape, size, etc.
Stabilizing Anneal See Heat Treatment.
Stress Corrosion Cracking Cracking of metals under combined action of temperature, corrosion, and stress. The stress can be either applied or residual. Austenitic stainless steels are either applied or residual. Austenitic stainless steels are especially susceptible to cracking in chloride containing and some caustic environments.
Stress Relief Anneal See Heat Treatment.
Strip A flat-rolled steel product which serves as the raw material for welded tubing.
Sunk or Sink Drawn Tubing drawn through a die with no inside mandrel to control I.D. or wall thickness.
Swaged A mechanical reduction of the cross sectional area of a metal, preformed hot or cold by forging, pressing, or hammering.

 


T


Tapping The act of pouring molten metal form a furnace into a ladle.
Teeming Act of pouring molten metal from a ladle into an ingot mold.
Tempering See Heat Treatment.
Tensile Strength The maximum load per square inch of original cross-sectional area carried during a tension test to failure of the specimen. This test is preferred over the formerly-used ultimate strength.
Thermal Conductivity A measure of the ease with which heat is transmitted through a material.
Tolerance Permissible variation.
Torsion A twisting action resulting in shear stresses and strains.
Toughness A measure of ability to absorb energy and deform plastically before fracturing.
Transformation Temperature The temperature at which a change in phase occurs in steels. The term is sometimes used to denote the limiting temperature of a transformation range.
Transverse Tension Test A tension test for evaluating mechanical properties of a material in a direction transverse to that of rolling.
Turning A method for removing the surface from a work piece by bringing the cutting edge of a tool against it while the piece or tool is rotated.

 


U


Ultimate Strength See tensile strength.
Ultrasonic Testing The method of detecting defects in tubes or welds by passing high frequency sound waves into a material then monitoring and evaluating the reflected signals.
Upsetting A metal-working operation similar to forging, generally used to thicken the ends of tubes prior to threading.

 


V


Vickers Hardness Test See Hardness.

 


W


Wall Wall Thickness or Gage. Specified in either fractions or decimals of an inch or by a wire gage number. In the United States, the most common gage used for tubing is the Birmingham iron wire gage, designated B.W.G..
Wall – Average Average Wall – A tube whose wall thickness is permitted to range over and under the specified nominal wall measurement within certain defined tolerances.
Wall – Maximum or Minimum Maximum and Minimum – The dimensions resulting after applying the proper tolerances to the nominal dimensions.
Wall – Minimum Minimum Wall – Generally, the lightest wall permitted within specified tolerances. A minimum wall tube is one whose wall thickness is not permitted to fall below the specified nominal measurement.
Wall – Nominal Nominal – The theoretical or stated value of the O.D., I.D., or wall dimension as specified by the customer.
Work Hardening Hardness developed in metal as a result of cold working. See cold working.

 


Y


Yield Point The first stress in a material measured as load per unit of original cross-sectional area at which an increase in strain occurs without an increase in stress.
Yield Strength The stress at which a material exhibits a specified deviation from proportionality of stress and strain. An offset of 0.2% is most frequently used.

Tech & Service of boiler tubing

We have also created a tubing resource guide, an amazing training tool for our customers to use.

PHYSICAL AND MECHANICAL PROPERTIES
ASME
Speci-
fication
ASME
Grade
Mechanical Properties (minumum)
Short Time, High Temperature Tensile Strength, ksi
Creep, Strength, ksi
Tensile
Strength
Yield
Strength
Elon-
gation
% in
2″ or
50 mm
Max.
hard-
ness
Rockwell
B
Temperatures F
 Temperatures F
ksi
MPa
ksi
MPa
800
900
1000
1100
1200
1300
1400
1500
1600
1700
1800
1900
2000
a1
b2
a1
b2
a1
b2
a1
b2
SA-178
A
47
324
26
179
35
77
50.0
38.0
25.5
15.5
11.5
SA-192
SA-178
C
60
414
37
255
30
79
19.5
13.5
11.0
8.4
7.2
2.1
SA-210
A-1
SA-210
C
70
483
40
276
30
89
SA-209
and
SA-250
T1b
T1
T1a
53
55
60
365
379
414
28
30
32
193
207
221
30
30
30
77
80
81

70.5

63.5

57.5

45.0

27.0

16.0















33.5

23.5

24.5

17.2

12.4

5.2




SA-213
T2
T12
T11
60
60
60
414
414
414
30
30
30
207
207
207
30
30
30
85
85
85
65.0
62.0
69.0
60.0
57.0
67.5
54.5
52.0
58.0
45.5
43.0
47.5
34.5
32.0
33.5
20.0
20.0
23.0

12.0
14.0














32.0

35.0

35.0
21.0

20.0
12

14.7
5.6

8.2
3.6

5.5
1.3

2.1
T3b
T22
T21
60
60
60
414
414
414
30
30
30
207
207
207
30
30
30
85
85
85
64.5
67.0
59.0
61.5
64.0
53.5
55.5
50.0
45.0
44.0
39.0
36.0
31.0
31.0
24.5
19.5
24.0
19.0
11.0
13.0
12.0
















28.0
40.5
19.5
18.0
22.0
12.0
11.0
16.4
12.5
6.3
7.5
7.0
5.9
9.2
8.0
3.3
4.9
4.0
T5
T5b
T5c
60
60
60
414
414
414
30
30
30
207
207
207
30
30
30
85
89
85
54.0
65.0
53.0
53.5
60.5
46.0
45.5
47.5
39.0
32.0
37.0
31.0
24.5
24.5
23.0
18.0
13.5
15.5
13.0
10.0
10.0
















17.9

15.0

9.2
8.2
7.2
5.7
4.8
4.4
2.4
2.2
T7
T9
TP-304
60
60
75
414
414
517
30
30
30
207
207
207
30
30
35
89
89
90
59.5
60.0
57.0
52.5
53.0
64.5
43.5
45.0
61.5
33.0
36.0
53.7
22.0
23.0
44.4
16.0
16.0
35.6
12.0
13.0
23.6


17.2


14.5












14.5
33.3
9.2
24.8
8.0
12.0
5.0
8.5
4.4
7.0
24.0
2.5
3.8
16.0
TP-310
TP-316
TP-321
75
75
75
517
517
517
30
30
30
207
207
207
35
35
35
90
90
90
84.2
74.2
63.4
84.7
72.1
62.4
80.4
70.7
61.4
73.2
63.7
56.9
64.2
54.4
46.1
51.3
41.9
38.3
44.4
36.1
30.3
34.6
25.4
20.2
24.1
21.6
14.4
16.2

11.4

8.7

7.0










22.5

15.0

14.8
23.0

9.2
14.0
TP-321
TP-347
TP-348
75
75
75
517
517
517
30
30
30
207
207
207
35
35
35
90
90
90

64.4
64.4

63.9
63.9

60.9
60.9

57.5
57.5

46.2
46.2

39.3
39.3

27.8
27.8

20.4
20.4

14.2
14.2




















21.0
23.5
23.5
13.0
15.0
15.0
The data included in this brochure are published as information only. For purposes of design or construction, reference should be made to the appropriate codes, standards, practices and specifications governing the use of this material.
  1. Stress ksi for 10,000 hours (.10% – 1,000 hours) with 1% elongation
  2. Stress ksi for 100,000 hours (.01% – 1,000 hours) with 1% elongation
  3. Btu/hr-ft-F @ 200F
  4. 10-6 (in/in/F)
  5. 10,000 hours
  6. 100,000 hours
ASME
Speci-
fication
ASME
Grade
1200
1300
1400
1500
Oxidation
Resistance
Temp. F
Limitations
Thermal
Conduc-
tivity3
Thermal
Expansion
Temp F4
Creep Rupture, ksi
 Temperatures F

800

900

1000

1100

1200

1300

1400

1500

a
1

b
2

a
1

b
2

a
1

b
2

a
1

b
2
70-
400
70-
800
a
5
b
6
a
5
b6
a5
b6
a5
b6
a5
b6
a5
b6
a5
b6
a5
b6
SA-178
A
950
33.6
7.66
8.90
25.0
22.0
13.0
10.0
7.0
4.5
SA-192
SA-178
C
SA-210
A-1
SA-210
C
SA-209
and
SA-250
T1b
T1
T1a

















975

25.2

7.73

9.02





36.3

23.7

15.0

7.95

5.9

2.95

3.4

2.05












SA-213
T2
T12
T11


3.37


.91












1025

1050
25.2
24.4
21.9
7.73
7.73
7.60
9.02
9.02
8.96




48.5

42.4
38.5

34.1
18.8

18.8
9.6

9.88
7.3

7.9
4.25

4.73
2.82














T3b
T22
T21
3.4
4.2
4.0
1.07
2.5
1.6












1080
1125
1125
24.4
21.3
20.1
7.60
7.65
7.60
8.96
8.40
8.96




24.0
27.5
28.4


22.0
15.0
18.0
15.4
10.0
14.0
10.7
9.5
10.0
8.3
6.5
7.5
5.2
5.0
6.0
4.6
4.0
4.0
2.5
2.5
2.5

1.5








T5
T5b
T5c
1.8
1.6
.9
.85












1150
1200
18.1
18.1
18.1
7.25
7.25
7.25
7.95
7.95
7.95




23.9

24.5
19.1

17.6
13.5

12.9
10.1

9.0
7.6

6.9
5.3

4.6
4.3

3.7
2.8

2.35
2.4

1.95
1.4

1.20








T7
T9
TP-304
2.0
2.3
13.0
1.3
1.6
9.0


7.0


4.0








1175
1200
1650
15.3
14.0
9.3
6.64
6.64
9.83
7.44
7.44
10.84




22.1
33.0


12.5
16.6
27.0
8.2
8.2
22.0
7.0
8.5
17.5
4.7
6.3
13.0
3.9
4.3
11.0
2.7
2.8
7.0
2.2
2.2
7.0
1.5
1.27
3.75


3.0


2.0




TP-310
TP-316
TP-321
8.0
9.0
10.0
5.5
5.0
6.0
5.0
6.0
5.5
4.0
4.0
2.5
3.0
4.6
2.2
3.8
1.2
2.5
.90
1.25
2000
1650
1650
8.0
8.4
9.3
9.27
9.95
9.93
9.56
10.98
10.84










34.0



28.0
21.0

25.0
15.0

17.0
12.5

13.5
7.5
7.5
10.0
5.0
5.0
7.2
3.5
4.8
6.5
3.5
3.0
4.0
2.0
2.5

1.5

TP-321
TP-347
TP-348
12.0
11.5
11.5
7.0
6.0
6.0
7.0
6.5
6.5
4.0
3.5
3.5
4.1

2.3

2.5

2.1

1650
1650
1650
9.3
9.3
9.3
9.83
9.83
9.83
10.84
10.84
10.84









38.0

32.5

27.0

22.0

17.5

13.0

11.0

7.5

6.0

4.0

2.5

1.5

The data included in this brochure are published as information only. For purposes of design or construction, reference should be made to the appropriate codes, standards, practices and specifications governing the use of this material.

  1. Stress ksi for 10,000 hours (.10% – 1,000 hours) with 1% elongation
  2. Stress ksi for 100,000 hours (.01% – 1,000 hours) with 1% elongation
  3. Btu/hr-ft-F @ 200F
  4. 10-6 (in/in/F)
  5. 10,000 hours
  6. 100,000 hours

Overview of standards and types of boiler pipes:
DIN 17175 EN 10216-2 ASTM A335
 St 35.8, I + III  P 235 GH, 1 + 2  P5 
 15 Mo 3  16 Mo 3  P 11 
 13 CrMo 44  13 CrMo 4-5  P22 
 10 CrMo 910  10 CrMo 9-10  P9 
 X 10 CrMo VNb 9-1  X 10 CrMo VNb 9-1  P91 
 X 20 CrMo V 12-1  X 20 CrMo V 11-1

You are looking for boiler pipes with different specifications?

Carbon steel for water distribution for temperature 0° – 100°C

EN – DIN WNr AISI/ Tradename ASTM – UNS Pipe
seamless
Pipe
welded
P235TR1  1.0254 A/ SA53B A/ SA53B
EN10216-1 EN10217-1

Carbon steel for temperature -20° – 400°C for pressure application

EN – DIN WNr AISI/ Tradename ASTM – UNS Pipe
seamless
Pipe
welded
P235GH  1.0345 A/ SA106 Gr B/ A A/ SA672 B65
EN10216-2 EN10217-2/ -5
P265GH 1.0425 A/ SA106 Gr C/ A A/ SA672 BB70
EN10216-2 EN10217-2/ -5
P355N/ NH 1.0562/ 1.0565 API 5L X52 API 5L X52
EN10216-3 EN10217-3
P460N/ NH 1.8905/ 1.8935 API 5L X65 API 5L X65
EN10216-3 EN10217-3

Low Alloy steel and Alloy Steel for temperature 0° to 650°C for pressure application

EN – DIN WNr AISI/ Tradename ASTM – UNS Pipe
seamless
Pipe
welded
16Mo3 1.5415 A/ SA335 P1 A/ SA691 1CR
EN10216-2 EN10217-5
X11CrMo5-1 1.7362 A/ SA335 P5 A/ SA691 5CR
EN10216-2 EN10217-5
X11CrMo9-1 1.7386 A/ SA335 P9 A/ SA691 9CR
EN10216-2 EN10217-5
13CrMo4-5 1.7335 A/ SA335 P11 A/ SA691 1 1/4CR
EN10216-2 EN10217-5
10CrMo9-10 1.7380 A/ SA335 P22 A/ SA691 2 1/4CR
EN10216-2 EN10217-5
X10CrMoVNb9-1 1.4903 A/ SA335 P91 A/ SA691 91CR
EN10216-2 EN10217-5
X10CrWMoVNb9-2 1.4901 A/ SA335 P92 A/ SA691 92CR
EN10216-2 EN10217-5

Low temperature carbon steel for pressure purpose and low temp up to -50°C

EN – DIN WNr AISI/ Tradename ASTM – UNS Pipe
seamless
Pipe
welded
P215NL 1.0451 A/ SA333 Gr1/ Gr6 A/ SA671CC60/70
EN10216-4 EN10217-4
P255QL 1.0452 A/ SA333 Gr1/ Gr6 A/ SA671CC60/70
EN10216-4 EN10217-4
P265NL 1.0453 A/ SA333 Gr1/ Gr6 A/ SA671CC60/70
EN10216-4 EN10217-4
P355NL1/ NL2 1.0566 A/ SA333 Gr6 A/ SA671CC60/70
A/ SA333 Gr6
EN10216-3 EN10217-3

Low temperature Nickel Steel for pressure purpose and low temp up to -196°C

EN – DIN WNr AISI/ Tradename ASTM – UNS Pipe
seamless
Pipe
welded
X10Ni9/ X8Ni9 1.5682/ 1.5662 A/ SA333 Gr. 8 A/ SA671C100/ CH100
EN10216-4 EN10217-4
12Ni14 1.5637 A/ SA333 Gr3 A/ SA671CF66
EN10216-4 EN10217-4

Boiler tubes need to withstand high pressure and temperature. Sunny Steel’s state-of-the-art manufacturing processes and advanced inspection and testing procedures ensure our boiler tube stand up to the harsh environments.

Sunny steel are instrumental in offering our clients with a wide range of Boiler Tubes that is used in varied industrial applications. These Boiler Tubes are known for their resistance to corrosion and tolerance for withstanding temperature variations. We also undertake customization of these tubes to meet the specific requirements of our clients.


Condition on delivery:
Term Symbol Explanation
Cold-finished/hard
(cold-finished as-drawn)
BK No heat treatment after the last cold-forming process. The tubes therefore have only low deformability.
Cold-finished/soft
(lightly cold-worked)
BKW After the last heat treatment there is a light finishing pass (cold drawing) With proper subsequent processing, the tube can be cold-formed (e.g. bent, expanded) within certain limits.
Annealed GBK After the final cold-forming process the tubes are annealed in a controlled atmosphere or under vacuum.
Normalized NBK The tubes are annealed above the upper transformation point in a controlled atmosphere or under vacuum.

Glossary of terms

Alloy Steel: All steels contain carbon and small amounts of silicon, sulfur, manganese and phosphorus. Steels that contain intentional additions of elements other than these or in which silicon and manganese are present in large amounts for the express purpose of improving or altering any of the physical or mechanical properties of the steel are termed alloy steels.

Annealing: A general term referring to the thermal treatment process involving heating and cooling, usually applied to change mechanical or physical properties, to produce a desired microstructure.

Annealing (Bright Annealing): An annealing process usually carried out in a controlled atmosphere furnace using a reducing atmosphere to achieve desired mechanical properties with minimum surface oxidation. The tube surface is relatively bright.

Annealing (Normalizing): An annealing process in which a steel is heated to a temperature that is above the upper transformation range and then cooled in air. A slight surface oxidation occurs during this process. The tube surface has a black or blue color.

Annealing (Solution Annealing): An annealing process in which stainless steel is heated to a suitable temperature to help ensure the solution of constituents, such as chromium carbides, and cooled rapidly to hold these constituents in solution.

ASM (American Society For Materials International): A professional society of Material Scientists and Engineers dedicated to the collection and distribution of information about materials and manufacturing processes.

ASME (American Society Of Mechanical Engineers): An organization of engineers dedicated to the preparation of design code requirements and material and testing standards. Adopts, sometimes with minor changes, specifications prepared by ASTM. The adopted specifications are those approved for use under the ASME Boiler and Pressure Code and are published by ASME in Section II of the ASME Code. The ASME specifications have the letter “S” preceding the “A” or the “B” of the ASTM specifications. The “SA” series are for iron base materials, while the ‘SB”” series are for other materials, such as nickel base, copper, etc.

ASTM (American Society For Testing And Materials): A body of industry professionals involved in writing universally accepted steel material and test specifications and standards. The “A” series of material specifications are for iron base materials, while the “B” series are for other materials, such as nickel base, copper, etc.

Austenite: A non-magnetic metallurgical phase having a face-centered cubic crystalline structure. Except for steel compositions having at least 6% nickel, austenite is typically only present at temperatures above 1333 ˚F (723 ˚C).

Austenitic: These grades of stainless steels (300 Series and some 200 Series) have chromium (roughly 18% to 30%) and nickel (roughly 6% to 20%) as their major alloying additions. They have excellent ductility and formability at all temperatures, excellent corrosion resistance and good weldability. In the annealed condition, they are nonmagnetic. Some have the ability to be hardened by cold rolling as a final step. These grades are usually non-magnetic and are used for applications requiring good general corrosion resistance, such as food processing, chemical processing, kitchen utensils, pots and pans, brewery tanks, sinks, wheel covers and hypodermic needles.

Bend Test: A test for determining relative soundness and ductility of a metal to be formed. The specimen is bent over a specified diameter through a specified angle. In welded tubing, the weld is of primary interest.

Bevel: An angular cut on the ID or OD of a tube.

Burst Pressure: The internal pressure that will cause a piece of tubing to fail by exceeding the plastic limit and tensile strength of the material from which the tube is fabricated.

Camber: The amount of curvature or deviation from exact straightness over any specified length of tubing.

Capped Steel: Semi-killed steel that has characteristics similar to those of rimmed steels, but to a degree intermediate between rimmed and killed steel. The capping operation limits the time of gas evolution and prevents the formation of an excessive number of gas voids within the ingot.

Carbon Steel Tube: Steel tube containing only residual quantities of elements other than carbon and manganese. Typical industrial AISI designated grades include 1008, 1010, 1020, 1026, 1030, 1035 etc.

Chamfer: (1) A beveled surface to eliminate an otherwise sharp corner. (2) A relieved angular cutting edge at a tooth corner.

Charpy Impact Test: A pendulum-type single blow impact test in which the specimen, usually notched, is supported at both ends as a simple beam and broken by a falling pendulum. The energy absorbed, as determined by the subsequent rise of the pendulum, is a measure of impact strength or notch toughness. See also impact testing.

Check Analysis: An analysis of the metal after it has been rolled or forged into semi-finished or finished forms. It is not a check on the ladle analysis, but is a check against the chemistry ordered.

Coefficient of Thermal Expansion: A physical property value representing the change in length per unit length, the change in area per unit area or the change in volume per unit volume per one degree increase in temperature.

Cold Drawing: The process of pulling a tube through a die and over a mandrel to reduce its diameter and/or wall thickness to a specific outside diameter, inside diameter or wall thickness. Higher tensile properties, tighter dimensional tolerances, and improved surface finish are obtained due to the cold working at room temperature.

Concentricity:
Used to describe tubing where the center of its inside diameter is consistent with the center of its outside diameter resulting in no variation of wall thickness. By virtue of the fact that welded tubing is fabricated from precision rolled flat stock, concentricity is inherent with a roll-formed, welded tube.

Corrosion:
Chemical or electrochemical deterioration of a metal or alloy.

Corrosion (Galvanic):
Corrosion associated with the presence of two dissimilar metals in a solution (electrolyte). In principle, it is similar to bath-type plating in the sense that the anode surface has lost metal (corroded).

Corrosion (Intergranular):
Corrosion that occurs preferentially along the grain boundaries of the alloy.

Corrosion (Pitting):
Non-uniform corrosion usually forming small cavities in the metal surface.

Corrosion Resistance:
The ability to resist attack by corrosion.

Cut Length: Refers to tubing ordered to a specified length and permitting a tolerance of a standardized fraction of an inch over, but nothing under, the specified length.

Deburring: Removal of a small ridge of metal formed by upset during a machining or cutting operation.

Decarburization: The loss of carbon from the surface of ferrous alloy as a result of heating in a medium that reacts with the carbon.

Density: The mass per unit volume of a substance, usually expressed in the tubing industry in pounds per cubic inch.

Destructive Testing: Any of the mechanical tests performed on an expendable sample of tubing to check physical properties. These tests include: tensile, yield, elongation, hardness, flare, flattening, bend and burst.

Dimensions of Tubing: A round tube section has three dimensions, any two of which may be specified. The three dimensions are outside diameter (OD), inside diameter (ID), and wall thickness (t or W). Nominal as applied to any of these dimensions refers to the theoretical or stated single value of that dimension. The dimensions ordinarily specified by the customer are termed “nominal”; maximum and minimum referring to the greatest and least values of any dimension. Average dimensions are those secured by averaging a series of micrometer readings.

Ductility: The ability of a tube to deform plastically. Frequently, elongation during tensile testing is used as a measurement of this property.

Duplex Stainless Steels: Steels exhibiting both austenitic and ferritic phases and characteristics.

Dye Penetrant Inspection: Non-destructive test employing dye or fluorescent chemical and sometimes black light to detect surface defects.

Eccentricity: The displacement of the ID of the tube with respect to its OD Eccentricity results in the variation of wall thickness.

Eddy Current Testing:
A nondestructive testing procedure that is a continuous process performed on the tubular products during fabrication and in final inspection. It is by nature an electrical test that utilizes fluctuations in magnetic field strength to check tubing (against a calibrated standard) for possible defects, such as holes, cracks, gouges, etc., on both inside and outside surfaces of the tube.

Elastic Limit: A measure of the maximum stress that may be applied to a tube without leaving a permanent deformation or strain after the stress is released.

Elongation: The amount of permanent extension in the vicinity of the fracture in the tension test; usually expressed as a percentage of the original gauge length.

Fatigue: The tendency for a metal to break at a point that is considerably below the ultimate tensile strength due to the conditions of repeated cyclic stressing and considerably below the ultimate tensile strength.

Ferrite: A metallurgical phase of iron having a body-centered cubic crystalline structure. Ferrite is soft, magnetic, and less susceptible to certain corrosion cracking than austenite.

Ferrite Number: A calculated value indicating the relative ability of a particular chemical composition of steel to form ferrite upon solidification from the molten state. The higher the ferrite number, the higher the percent of ferrite formed. Several different ferrite number formulas have been developed and should not be interchanged.

Ferritic Stainless Steel:
A magnetic grade of stainless steel having a microstructure consisting of ferrite, including some of the 200 and 400 series stainless steels. Hardness can be increased slightly by cold work, but not by heat treatment. At lower temperatures, ductility and formability is significantly less than that of austenitic grades. As the only major alloying element is chromium (10% to 30% depending on specific grade), these steels are relatively inexpensive to produce and are common in automotive exhaust and ornamental applications.

Flare Test: A test applied to tube involving a tapered expansion over a cone. Similar to a pin-expansion test.

Formability: The ease with which a metal can be shaped through plastic deformation. Evaluation of the formability of a metal involves measurement of strength, ductility, and the amount of deformation required to cause fracture.

Gages, Gauges: A measurement of thickness. There are various standard gages, such as United States Standard Gage (USS), Galvanized Sheet Gage (GSG), and Birmingham Wire Gage (BWG).

Gas Tungsten Arc Welding (GTAW): An arc welding process that uses an arc between a tungsten electrode (nonconsumable) and the weld pool (base metal of strip). A high quality full fusion weld is achieved. The process can be performed with or without the addition of filler material. The GTAW process is also commonly referred to as Tungsten Inert Gas (TIG) welding.

Grain Size: A measure of the size of individual metallic crystals usually expressed as an average. Grain size is reported as a number in accordance with procedures described in ASTM grain size specifications.

Hardenability: In a ferrous alloy, the property that determines the depth and distribution of hardness induced by quenching.

Hardness: Resistance of metal to plastic deformation. Various hardness tests, such as Rockwell, Brinell, Vickers and Knoop, may be used.

Heat Exchanger Tube: A tube for use in an apparatus in which fluid inside the tube will be heated or cooled by fluid outside the tube. The term usually is not applied to coiled tubes or to tubes for use in refrigerators or radiators.

Heat Number: An identifying number assigned to the product of one melting.

Heat Treatment: A combination of heating and cooling operations applied to a metal or alloy in the solid state to obtain desired conditions or properties. Heating for the sole purpose of hot working is excluded from the meaning of this definition. See various types below.

Heat Treatment/Annealing: Annealing is a heat treatment process that usually involves a relatively slow cooling after holding the material for some time at the annealing temperature. The purpose of the annealing treatment may include:
(a) to induce softness;
(b) to remove internal stresses;
(c) to refine the grain size;
(d) to modify physical and or mechanical properties;
(e) to produce a definite microstructure;
(f) to improve machinability.
It is generally desirable to use more specific terms in describing the heat treatment to be used (for example, finish anneal, full anneal or medium anneal, as applicable).

Heat Treatment/Bright Anneal: Carried out in a controlled furnace atmosphere, so that surface oxidation is reduced to a minimum and the tube surface remains relatively bright.

Heat Treatment/Dead Soft: A heat treatment applied to achieve maximum softness and ductility.

Heat Treatment/Full Anneal: Heating to a temperature above the upper critical and slow cooling below the lower critical.

Heat Treatment/Isothermal Anneal: Austenitizing a heat treatable alloy and cooling to and holding at a temperature at which austenite transforms to a relatively soft ferrite-carbide aggregate.

Heat Treatment/Normalize: Heating a ferrous metal to a temperature approximately 100 ˚F above the upper critical temperature and cooling in still air.

Heat Treatment/Quenching: A process of rapid cooling from an elevated temperature by contact with liquids or gases.

Heat Treatment/Soft Anneal: A high temperature stress relieving anneal usually performed in the temperature range of 1250 ˚F to 1350 ˚F. This type of anneal reduces hardness and strength of a cold worked steel to achieve near maximum softness.

Heat Treatment/Solution Anneal: Heating steel into a temperature range wherein certain elements or compounds dissolve, followed by cooling at a rate sufficient to maintain these elements in solution at room temperature. The expression is normally applied to stainless and other special steels.

Heat Treatment/Spheroidizing Anneal: A general term that refers to heat treatments that promote spheroidal or globular forms of carbide in carbon or alloy steels.

Heat Treatment/Stabilizing Anneal: A treatment applied to austenitic stainless steels wherein carbides of various forms are deliberately precipitated. Sufficient additional time is provided at the elevated temperature to diffuse chromium into the areas adjacent to the carbides (usually grain boundaries). This treatment is intended to lessen the chance of intergranular corrosion.

Heat Treatment/Stress Relieving: A heat treatment that reduces internal residual stresses that have been induced in metals by casting, quenching, welding, cold working, etc. The metal is soaked at a suitable temperature for a sufficient time to allow readjustment of stresses. The temperature of stress relieving is always below the transformation range. Finish anneal, medium anneal and soft anneal (sub-critical) describe specific types of stress relief anneals.

Heat-Affected Zone (Haz): The portion of the base metal that was not melted during welding, but in which the microstructure and mechanical properties were altered by the heat.

High-Strength Low-Alloy (HSLA) Steels: Steels designed to provide better mechanical properties and/or greater resistance to atmospheric corrosion than conventional carbon steels. They are not considered to be alloy steels in the normal sense because they are designed to meet specific mechanical properties rather than a chemical composition. Typical HSLA steels have minimum yield strengths 50 ksi, 60 ksi, 70 ksi or 80 ksi. The chemical composition of the specific HSLA steel may vary for different product thickness to meet mechanical property requirements. The HSLA steels have low carbon contents (0.05 to ~0.20% C) in order to produce adequate formability and weldability. Small quantities of chromium, nickel, molybdenum, copper, nitrogen, vanadium, niobium and titanium are used in various combinations.

Hot Finished Seamless Tubing: Tubing produced by rotary piercing, extrusion, and other hot working processes without subsequent cold finishing operations.

Hot Rolled ERW Tubing: As welded electric resistance welded tubing made from hot rolled strip or sheet.

Huey Test: A corrosion test for stainless steels. The weight loss per unit area is measured after each of five 48-hour boils in 65% nitric acid (per ASTM A 262 Practice C). The test results are calculated to and reported as the average corrosive rate of the five boils in inches per month (1pm) corrosion rates. The test is used to determine the suitability of a material for nitric acid service. Since most of the weight loss is due to intergranular attack, the Huey test is commonly used as an indication of the resistance of a stainless steel to intergranular corrosion.

Hydrostatic Test: A test in which a liquid, usually water (under pressure), is used internally to detect and locate leaks in a tube of a fabricated structure.

ID: Inside diameter of a tubular product. It is also known as the opening or bore of a tube or pipe.

Impact Test: A test to determine the energy absorbed in fracturing a test bar at high velocity. The typical test for tubing is a notch test, with an artificial notch present and tested at various temperatures.

Imperfection:
When referring to the physical condition of a product, any departure of a quality characteristic from its intended level or state. When referring to the dimensional condition of a product, any dimensional characteristic that is out of intended range. The existence of an imperfection does not imply nonconformance, nor does it have any implication as to the usability of a product in service. An imperfection should be rated on a scale of severity, in accordance with applicable specifications, to establish whether or not the product is of acceptable quality.

Inclusion: A physical and mechanical discontinuity occurring within a metal product, usually consisting of nonmetallic foreign material. Inclusions are often capable of transmitting some structural stresses and energy fields, but to a noticeably different degree than from the parent material. The foreign particles are usually compounds, such as oxides, sulfides, silicates or combination of these.

Integral Finned Tubing:
Tubing with raised surface fins formed from the wall of the tube itself.

Intergranular Corrosion:
Corrosion that occurs at the grain boundaries in austenitic stainless steels that have been heated to and held at temperatures between 850 ˚F and 1450 ˚F.

ISO (International Organization For Standardization):
Organization that prepares specifications. Both Canada and the U.S.A. are ISO members and participate in ISO specification development.

Jominy Test: Hardenability test performed on alloy steels to determine depth and degree of hardness resulting from a standard end-quenching method with cold water.

Killed Steel: During the steel making process, as molten metal comes from the furnace, it contains more or less oxygen in the form of dissolved oxides, the amount varying with the composition desired and with certain conditions of steel making. If certain elements, such as manganese, silicon or aluminum are added in sufficient amounts to molten steel in the ladle, the metal will solidify quietly without evolution of gases. When processing rimmed steel and semi-killed steel, killed steel is one of the methods of deoxidizing. Killed steel is deoxidized with strong deoxidizing agent(s) to reduce the oxygen content to a minimum so that no reaction occurs between carbon and oxygen during solidification. Usually, killed steel has the best internal cleanliness condition.

Ladle: A large vessel into which molten steel or molten slag is received and handled.

Ladle Analysis: Chemical analysis obtained from a sample taken during the pouring of the steel.

Laminations: Defects resulting from the presence of blisters, seams or foreign inclusions aligned parallel to the worked surface of a metal.

Lap: A surface defect caused from folding the surface of an ingot, bloom or bar during hot rolling operations and then rolling or forging the fold into the surface.

Laser Beam Welding (LBW): A fusion joining process that produces coalescence of materials with the heat obtained from a concentrated beam of coherent, monochromatic light impinging on the joint to be welded. Generally an autogenous weld with no filler metal added.

Line Marking: A continuous strip of information that is printed with an inert ink along the longitudinal surface of the tube after final inspection. This data includes ASTM spec number, material identification, size and wall thickness, as well as a heat number identity. Full traceability is possible with any line-marked product.

Martensite: A constituent in quenched steel formed without diffusion and only during rapid cooling below the martensitic start (Ms) temperature. Martensite is the hardest of the transformation products of austenite.

Mean Coefficient of Thermal Expansion:
This is the amount that a material will grow in size when subjected to a temperature rise. It is measured in inches/inch/F. This number multiplied by the length of the tubing (in inches) and by the temperature rise (in ˚F) indicates how much the tube length will expand (in inches). If the temperature decreases, the tube will shrink by a similar amount.

Mechanical Properties: The properties of a material that reveal its elastic and inelastic behavior when force is applied, thereby indicating its suitability for mechanical applications; for example tensile strength, yield strength, elongation, hardness, and fatigue limit.

Mechanical Tubing: Used for a variety of mechanical and structural purposes, as opposed to pressure tubing, which is used to contain or conduct fluids or gases under pressure. It is used for the starting stock for machined or formed parts of industrial, automotive, agricultural, aircraft, transportation, material handling and household equipment. Mechanical tubing may be hot finished or cold drawn. It is commonly manufactured to consumer specifications covering chemical analysis and mechanical properties. It is made to exact OD and wall thickness dimensions and custom-produced to end-use applications in seamless and welded condition.

Metallography: The science dealing with the constitution and structure of metals and alloys as revealed by the unaided eye or by such tools as low-powered magnification, optical microscope, electron microscope and diffraction or X-ray techniques.

Minimum Wall: Any wall having tolerances specified all on the plus side.

Modulus Of Elasticity: A ratio of stress to strain used in engineering calculations to determine rigidity and deflections. The higher the number, the more rigid the item will be for a given load. The units are in pounds per square inch (psi).

Non-Destructive Testing: Methods of detecting defects without destroying or permanently changing the material being tested. Test methods include ultrasonic, eddy current, magnetic particle, liquid, penetrant, and X-ray.

OD: Outside diameter of a tubular product.

Orbital Weld: A circumferential, full fusion butt or girth weld used to join two lengths of tubing. It is a GTAW welding process similar in nature to the longitudinal weld seam of a welded tubular product.

Ovality: The difference between the maximum and minimum outside diameters of any one cross section of a tube. It is a measure of deviation from roundness.

Oxidation: In its simplest terms, oxidation means the combination of any substance with oxygen. Scale developed during heat treatment is a form of oxidation.

Oxide: A compound consisting of oxygen and one or more metallic elements.

Passivate: The changing of the chemically active surface of a metal to a much less active state by the application of the proper chemical treatment or by applying an induced electrical current and voltage for cathodic or anodic protection from corrosion. An example of chemically passivating stainless steel would be to immerse it in a hot solution of approximately 10% to 20% by volume nitric acid and water.

Physical Properties: Properties of a material that are relatively insensitive to structure and can be measured without the application of force; for example, density, electrical conductivity, coefficient of thermal expansion, and magnetic permeability.

Pickling: Use of solutions, usually acids, to remove surface oxides from a tube; may also be used to produce a desired surface finish.

Pressure Tubing: Tubing produced for the purpose of containing or conducting fluids or gases under pressure. Pressure tubing is produced to exact diameters and decimal wall thicknesses to ASTM or ASME specifications for boiler, heat exchanger, condenser tubes, etc. Made using both seamless and welded processes in carbon, alloy, and stainless steels.

Profilometer: An instrument used for measuring surface finish.

PSI: Common engineering abbreviation for pounds per square inch. A measurement of stress in a material.

Pyrometer: An instrument of any of various types used for measuring temperatures.

Recrystallization:
(1) Formation of a new, strain-free grain structure from that existing in cold worked metal, usually accomplished by heating (solution annealing of austenitic stainless steels).
(2) The change from one crystal structure to another, as occurs when heating or cooling through a critical temperature (as in the change of an as-welded dendritic structure to an equi-axed grain structure, similar to that of the parent material).

Reduction Of Area: A measure of ductility determined in a tensile test. It is the maximum reduction, at the fracture, of the cross section area of a specimen, as compared with its original cross section area.

Residual Stress: Macroscopic stresses that are set up within a metal as the result of non-uniform plastic deformation. This deformation may be caused by cold working or by drastic gradients of temperature from quenching or welding.

Seamless Tubing: Tubular product that is made by piercing or hot extrusion to form the tube hollows. Further reduction of the tube hollows is accomplished by cold drawing or tube reducing to the final finish and size. Initial billet or ingot is cast.

Semi-Killed Steel: Steel that is incompletely deoxidized to permit the evolution of carbon monoxide, thereby offsetting solidification shrinkage.

Sensitization:
Sensitization of stainless steel is a susceptibility to preferential grain boundary attack. Material that exhibits grain boundary carbide precipitation may or may not be sensitized.

Stainless:
A trade name given to alloy steel that is corrosion and heat resistant. The chief alloying elements are: chromium, nickel, and molybdenum. By AISI definition, a steel is called “stainless” when it contains 10.5% or more chromium.

Stainless Steel: Steel containing 10.5% or more chromium. Invented in 1903, metallurgists discovered that adding chromium to carbon steels imparted much improved corrosion resistance. Other major alloying elements include nickel, manganese, molybdenum, silicon and titanium.

Stress Corrosion Cracking: Cracking of metals under combined action of temperature, corrosion and stress. The stress can be either applied or residual.


PIPE END

We aware the beveling is very important processes in the whole production procession of butt-welding pipe fittings, we always make beveling according to the standard strictly. In the behavior, we make beveling after shot blasting, bevel ends are fully machined by advanced equipment Double Beveling Machine ensure the height, length, thickness, O.D. and I.D. are all qualified.

A pipe end is the description of how the section of pipe ends. There are three main types of pipe ends: beveled, threaded or plain. Understanding pipe ends is important when designing a piping system since it would be inappropriate for the designer to specify a threaded connection for a large diameter pipe or to specify a welded end when connecting to a threaded component.

BEVEL END
A bevel is a surface that is not at a right angle (perpendicular) to another surface. The standard angle on a pipe bevel is 37.5° but other non standard angles can be produced. Beveling of pipe or tubing is to prepare the ends for welding. However, it can also be used for deburring the cut ends for safety or aesthetic reasons. Bevel End is abbreviated on drawings as BE.

Welding Bevel acc.to

Our in-hourse R&D team developed bevel ends equipment are good using in thickness 2mm to 20mm pipe fittings, guarantee high efficiency and high quality.

Send us your technical drawings: SunnySteel will supply you with whatever flanges you are looking for.

Nominal wall Thickness : t End Preparation
t<5mm (for austenitic alloy steel
t<4mm)
Cut square or slightly chamfer
at manufacturer ‘ s option
5<t<22mm
(4<t<22mm)
Plain Bevel as in sketch ( a ) above
t>22mm Compound Bevel as in sketch ( b ) above

The beveling process is generally automated. This is because a pipe beveling machine can cut the bevel much faster than hand grinding, flame cutting or turning the pipe on a lathe. Further, the automated process ensures that there is an accurate and consistant pipe bevel each time. The automated process is much safer as operating personnel are not exposed to the same hazards as a person beveling the pipe.

This is the most commonly used end and is used on pipe, pipe nipples, and swage nipples.

THREADED END
Typically used on pipe 3″ and smaller, threaded connections are referred to as screwed pipe. With tapered grooves cut into the ends of a run of pipe, screwed pipe and screwed fittings can easily be assembled without welding or other permanent means of attachment. In the United States, the standard pipe thread is National Pipe Thread (NPT). The reason for this is that as NPT connections are assembled, they become increasingly more difficult for the process to leak. The standard taper for NPT pipe is 3/4″ for every foot. Threaded End is abbreviated on drawings as TE.

Threaded fittings have threads that are either male or female. Male threads are cut into the outside of a pipe or fitting, while female threads are cut into the inside of the fitting. As screwed pipe and fittings are assembled, two pieces are pulled together. The distance that is pulled together is called the thread engagement.

PLAIN END
A pain end pipe is a pipe that has been cut at 90° perpendicular to the pipe run. The reason pipe would be specified as plain end rather than beveled end is when the pipe will be used in a Socket Weld connection or for use with a Slip-on Flange.

PIPE END ABBREVIATIONS
Common abbreviations for the types of pipe ends are as follows. In general, these are used to describe pipe nipples on drawings.

  • Bevel End (BE)
  • Bevel Both Ends (BBE)
  • Bevel Large End (BLE)
  • Bevel One End (BOE)
  • Bevel Small End (BSE)
  • Bevel for Welding (BFW)
  • Buttweld End (BE)
  • End of Pipe (EOP)
  • Flange One End (FOE)
  • Plain End (PE)
  • Plain Both Ends (PBE)
  • Plain One End (POE)
  • Thread End (TE)
  • Thread Both Ends (TBE)
  • Thread Large End (TLE)
  • Thread One End (TOE)
  • Thread Small End (TSE)
  • Threads Only (TO)
  • Threads per Inch (TPI)

American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME)

ASME About – ASME is a not-for-profit membership organization that enables collaboration, knowledge sharing, career enrichment, and skills development across all engineering disciplines, toward a goal of helping the global engineering community develop solutions to benefit lives and livelihoods. Founded in 1880 by a small group of leading industrialists, ASME has grown through the decades to include more than 130,000 members in 151 countries. Thirty-two thousand of these members are students.
STANDARDS

  • ASME B16.34 – Valves Flanged, Threaded and Welding End
  • ASME B16.34 – GROUP 1, MATERIAL SPECIFICATIONS, CARBON STEEL AND ALLOY STEEL
  • Carbon Steel – 1.1, 1.2, 1.3, 1.4
  • Alloy Steel – 1.5, 1.6, 1.7, 1.8, 1.9, 1.10, 1.11, 1.12, 1.13, 1.14, 1.15
Material

Group No.

Material Nominal

Designation

Forging Casting Plate Bar Tubular
1.1 C
C-SI
C-MN-SIC-MN-SI-V
A105
A350 Gr. LF2A350 Gr. LF6 Cl.1
A216 Gr. WCB

 

A515 Gr. 70
A516 Gr. 70
A537 Gr. Cl.1
A675 Gr. 70
A105
A350 Gr. LF2
A696 Gr. C
A672 Gr. B70
A672 Gr. C70
1.2 C-SI
2 1/2NI
3 1/2NI
C-MN-SIC-MN-SI-V
A350 Gr. LF3

A350 Gr. LF6 Cl.2

A352 Gr. LC2
A352 Gr. LC3
A216 Gr. WCC
A352 Gr. LCC
A203 Gr. B
A203 Gr. E
A350 Gr. LF3 A106 Gr. C
1.3 C
C-SI
2 1/2NI
3 1/2NI
C-MN-SI
A352 Gr. LCB

 

A515 Gr. 65
A203 Gr. A
A203 Gr. D
A516 Gr. 65
A675 Gr. 65 A672 Gr. B65

A672 Gr. C65

1.4 C
C-SIC-MN-SI
A350 Gr. LF1 A515 Gr. 60

A516 Gr. 60

A675 Gr. 60

A350 Gr. LF1
A696 Gr. B

A106 Gr. B
A672 Gr. B60
A672 Gr. C60
1.5 C-1/2MO A182 Gr. F1 A217 Gr. WC1
A352 Gr. LC1
A204 Gr. A
A204 Gr. B
A182 Gr. F1 A691 Gr. CM-70
1.6 C-1/2MO

1/2CR-1/2MO

1CR-1/2MO

A387 Gr. 2 Cl.1
A387 Gr. 2 Cl.2
A387 Gr. 12 Cl.1
A335 Gr. P1
A369 Gr. FP1
A691 Gr. 1/2CR
1.7 C-1/2MO
1/2CR-1/2MO
NI-1/2CR-1/2MO
3/4NI-MO-3/4CR
A182 Gr. F2

 

A217 Gr. WC4
A217 Gr. WC5
A204 Gr. C A182 Gr. F2

 

A691 Gr. MC-75
1.8 1CR-1/2MO

1 1/4CR-1/2MO-SI

2 1/4CR-1MO

 

A387 Gr. 12 Cl.2

A387 Gr. 11 Cl.1

A387 Gr. 22 Cl.1

 

A691 Gr. 1CR
A335 Gr. P12
A369 Gr. FP12
A691 Gr. 1 1/4CR
A335 Gr. P11
A369 Gr. FP11
A691 Gr. 2 1/4CR
A335 Gr. P22
A369 Gr. FP22
1.9 1CR-1/2MO
1 1/4CR-1/2MO-SI
1 1/4CR-1/2MO
A182 Gr. F12 Cl.2
A182 Gr. F11 Cl.2
A217 Gr. WC6 A387 Gr. 11 Cl.2 A182 Gr. F12 Cl.2
A182 Gr. F11 Cl.2
A739 Gr. B11
1.10 2 1/4CR-1MO A182 Gr. F22 Cl.3 A217 Gr. WC9 A387 Gr. 22 Cl.2 A182 Gr. F22 Cl.3
A739 Gr. B22
1.11 3CR-1MO
MN-1/2MO
MN-s1/2MO-1/2NI
MN-1/2MO-3/4NI
C-MN-SI
A182 Gr. F21

 

A387 Gr. 21 Cl.2
A302 Gr. A & B
A302 Gr. C
A302 Gr. D
A537 Gr. CL2
A182 Gr. F21

 

1.12 5CR-1/2MO

5CR-1/2MO-SI

A387 Gr. 5 Cl.1
A387 Gr. 5 Cl.2
A691 Gr. 5CR
A335 Gr. P5
A369 Gr. FP5
A335 Gr. P5b
1.13 5CR-1/2MO A182 Gr. F5a
A182 Gr. F5
A217 Gr. C5 A182 Gr. F5a
A182 Gr. F5
1.14 9CR-1MO A182 Gr. F9 A217 Gr. C12 A182 Gr. F9
1.15 9CR-1MO-V A182 Gr. F51 A217 Gr. C12A A387 Gr. 91 Cl.2 A182 Gr. F91 A335 Gr. P91
Product accord to the main standard:
Description Size Typical Steel Grade Standards Typical Applications
OD(mm) WT(mm)
Medium and low pressure boiler tube and pipe 14~720 2.0~120 10 GB 3087 Wall tube, header, steam pipe formedium and low pressure boiler tube and pipe
20
High pressure boiler tube and pipe 14~720 2.0~120 20G, 25MnG, 15MoG

12CrMoG, 15CrMoG

12Cr2MoG, 12Cr1MoVG

GB 5310 Wall tube,header,

Steam pipe under

the working pressure

≥9.8MPa,

Temperature 450~650℃

SA106A/B/C ASME SA106
SA179 ASME SA179
SA192 ASME SA192
T1/T1a ASME SA209
SA210A1/C ASME SA210
T2/P2, T5/P5, T9/P9, T11/P11 , T12/P12,

T22/P22, T91/P91

ASME SA213

ASME SA335

P195/235/265GH, 16Mo3

13CrMo4-5, 10CrMo9-10

15NiCuMoNb5-6-4

EN 10216
St35.8、St45.8, 15Mo3, 13CrMo44, 10CrMo910 DIN 17175
STPG370, STPG 410 JIS G 3454
STPT370, STPT 410 JIS G 3456
STBA12, STBA22, JIS G 3462
Boiler tubes for ship-building, header and pipeline
Description Size Grade Standard Applications
OD(mm) WT(mm)
Tube for Ship-building

 

14~720 2.0~120 410Ⅰ、410Ⅱ CCS Specification and GB/T5312

 

Boiler tubes for ship-building,

Header and pipeline

R410 GL Specification
410HB BV Specification
Gr3、Gr5 ABS Specification
TS410 DNV Specification
410Ⅰ、410Ⅱ LR Specification
RST138、RST142 KR Specification
KSTPG38、KSTPG42、KSTS38 NK Specification