Forged steel is an alloy of carbon and iron that is compressed under extreme pressure to make a very hard and strong substance. It has been used for thousands of years to create all types of materials. Modern forged steel is conducted using specialized machines or hydraulic hammers. There are many things to take into consideration when understanding the benefits of forged steel.
Forging refers to the use of forging machinery for metal blank, make its produce plastic deformation in order to obtain certain mechanical properties, a certain shape and size of forgings machining method. One of the two part of the forging. By forging can eliminate the as-cast loose metal, welded holes, generally is superior to the same material of the casting on the mechanical properties of the forgings.
Machinery load is high, the important part is tough working conditions, in addition to relatively simple shapes are available rolled plates, profiles or welded parts, the multi-use forgings.
Steel forging can be classified into three categories depending upon the forming temperature:
(1.) HOT FORGING OF STEEL
The forging temperature is between 950 and 1250 degree Celsius, above the recrystallization temperature. It results in good formability and requires low forming forces.
(2.) WARM FORGING OF STEEL
The forging temperature is between 750 and 950 degrees Celsius. It leads to limited formability and requires higher forming forces than for hot forging.
(3.) COLD FORGING OF STEEL
The forging temperature is at room condition, self-heating up to 150 degrees Celsius due to the forming energy. It results in low formability and needs high forming forces.
The bonus of forged steel is that the metal becomes stronger than equivalent types that are cast or machined. The pressure that compresses the steel makes the grains within the steel deform as they are forced together.
There are three basic types of forged steel. Drawn out steel increases the length of the alloy, while decreasing the width. Upset steel is the opposite, the length is decreased, while the width is increased. Squeezed-in steel uses closed dies that produces flow in all directions and compacts the steel into a solid shape.
Forged steel is used in a variety of industries. Everything from manufacturing to pharmaceuticals utilize the benefits of forged steel. Anything that can be made of metal can generally be made stronger and more weight-conscious by forged steel.
Properties of Forged Steel
Forged steel is often used in weapons, thanks to its strength and durability.
Forging steel is a metal-working process which involves the use of hammering or pressing techniques to alter the steel’s shape, followed by heat treatment. This method produces in the steel a number of properties which distinguish it from other treatments of this metal, for example casting, where liquid metal is poured into a mold and then left to solidify.
Strong and Durable
Steel forgings have a generally higher strength and are typically tougher than steel processed in other fashions. The steel is less likely to shatter on contact with other objects for example, making forged steel highly suitable for items such as swords. This increased strength and durability is a result of the way in which the steel is forced into shape — by pressing or by hammering — during the forging process. The steel’s grain is stretched by this process, and ends up aligned in one direction, as opposed to being random. Following the pressing or hammering, the forging is cooled in water or oil. By the end of the process, the steel is stronger than it would have been had it been cast, for example.
A steel forging’s strength isn’t consistent all the way through; instead, steel forgings are anisotropic, which means when the metal is worked on and deformation occurs, the steel’s strength is greatest in the direction of the resulting grain flow. This results in steel forgings which are strongest along their longitudinal axis, while in other directions, the forging will be weaker. This differs from steel castings, which are isotropic and therefore have almost identical properties in all directions.
Consistency Between Forgings
Since the process of forging is controlled and deliberate, with each forging undergoing the same steps, it’s typically possible to ensure a consistent material over the course of many different forgings. This is in contrast to cast steel, which is more random in nature due to the processes used.
Limit On Size
During the forging process, it’s more difficult to shape the metal, since forging occurs while the steel is still solid, unlike in casting where the metal has been reduced to its liquid form as part of the process. Since the metallurgist working with the steel will have more difficulty altering the metal’s shape, there’s a limit on the size and the thickness of the steel which can be successfully forged. The larger the metal section being worked on, the harder it is to forge.